Sewage and drain systems are part of modern history and essential part to understand the process of development of construction of water systems in human history process.
In ancient world, most of the sophisticated Sewage and Drain and water systems, where built in and for the kings and the rich people. It was until, everyone in the society understood that it was a common problem.
One of the most ancient sewage system and drainage are traced back to the Ancient Indus. These systems have amazing similarities to our modern sewage systems. Almost all houses in cities such Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro in India and Pakistan had an access to fresh water and drain systems facilities. Waste waters systems were designed to direct to a covered Drain systems which ended in major streets.
Fast growth of cities in the middle and in the last 200 years, created the need to design and implement the same basic Sewer and drain principals, but this time, it was for much bigger population, for millions of people in each city!
Type of Drains
Define as the drain system that will carry out the waste water from the building (Residential or Commercial) to the city sewage system. The law in USA, in the vast majority of the counties and cities, requires the Home Owner or the Property Owner (Commercial) to maintain the Mainline and repair it!!
(Note: the home owner is responsible for the sewer line all the way even the connection to the city, which is called the Saddle or The City Tie In. Sewer mains can be from 6 feet deep to 10 feet deep due to freeze line specifications for the area)
Drain systems that are located inside buildings walls (Housed, condo complexes, and commercial buildings) and will carry waste water into the Street main line.
All of your drains in your house is considered secondary lines for example: kitchen, laundry, tub/shower and hand sink drains are all considered secondary drains. They all consist from 1 inch pipe that will end up in a 3 inch or 4 inch main line. The toilet secondary line, is the only one in the house that its size on goes from 3 to 4 inches.
We can find only the mainline will exit the house and go to the street. If you have an alley almost all the time the main Drain will exit there to the city drain.
Residential drain problems can be categorized into Kitchen, Bath Tub, Shower, Laundry and Toilet. All these lines are considered secondary and will connect to the main line.
Bathtubs and Shower drain Problems-
No surprise here, hair is the main cause for slow or complete stoppage. Soap, other dirt, shampoo, and hair products create the problem. In most cases if the problem persists and is not treated properly, the pipes will eventually collapse and will cause a major problem.
To unclog the drain, Plumbers will use a 3/8 inch cable to clear the drain. And depending how dirty the drain is, and how hard and solid the build-up in the pipe is, we might need to run a Hydro-Jetter to clear the Drain completely. A snake will push and Drill a hole in the clogged drain, while a Hydro-Jetter will break and clear the crystallized solids accumulated on the pipe! Recommendation will be, using Hydro-Jett every 5 years in showers and tub.
Kitchen Drain clogs are caused by food debris, grease and years of buildup, rice and pasta leftover should not be used in a garbage disposal. A secondary snake machine with 3/8 inch cable will clear the drain.
Hydro-Jetting is almost always recommended to actually clean the drain and will have the drain running up to 10 years depending what goes down the drain. Most Plumbers will warranty if Hydro-Jetting is used.
A typical Clog is due also for hair, line, dirt soap parts that will slow the flow and eventually stops up the drain. A Secondary snake machine with 3/8 inch cable is used to clear the drain, but plumber will give warranty only for a month or two. A Hydro-Jetter is almost recommended to actually clean the drain and open its original size. In most cases, it is recommended that this secondary lines every 10-15 years to prevent a major drain problem that can end in broken pipes.
These clogs are due to the fact, that when many products that are washed down like toothpaste, mouth wash and soap, hand washed dirt etc. When combining all those chemicals over the time the drain just built up and stops the drain. A snake 3/8 inch cable clears the drain. Depending how dirty the drain is, a Hydro-Jetter to actually cleaning the drain.
Floor drain -
These drains get all kind of dirt, dust, leafs and debris (all kinds), and will clog these drains. A secondary snake 3/8 inch cable is used to unclog the drain.
Toilet / Maintenance -
A toilet clogged sometimes is just inside the toilet and can be cleared with a hand Auger Cable. After clearing the toilet, it is important to check the water flow in the basement (if there is one) in order to make sure that the main line is clear too!
The main line drain is the heart of the property (Residential, Commercial) sewage system. A stoppage in the main sewer main line can cause immediately a flood in the basement (If existed) or flooding other parts of the house, causing damaged to carpets and other valuable items in the house. Main line should be snaked immediately with 3/8 inch cable. A Skilled plumber can make that determination on where the clog is at. Sewer main stoppage is usually due to roots, baby wipes, partially collapsed pipes, or complete off-set.
A sewer camera should always be run to inspect these drains. In most cases snaking and hydro-jetting the main line will solve the problem unless pipe structure problem is detected.
In case of of-set or broken pipe or root problem, the sewer line must be replaced completely.